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Sunday, October 30, 2011

Lesson 1 - Grammar


I know, I know...this is your favorite part of every language, isn't it?

Since you are so anxious, let's get started.

Key Structures

To Name Things

watashi, watashi-tachi; anata, anata-gata
I, we; you <sing.>, you <pl.>

Amerika-jin to Nippon-jin
an American and a Japanese

Igirisu-jin-tachi ya Kanada-jin-tachi
Englishmen, Canadians, and others

Ōsutoraria-jin ka Nyū-jīrando-jin
an Australian or a New Zealander

kore, sore, are; kore-ra, sore-ra, are-ra
this, that, that; these, those, those

Sumisu-san to Jōnzu-san
Mr. Smith and Ms. Jones


Examples of 'to'
anata to watashi
you and I

Igirisu-jin to Furansu-jin
an Englishman and a Frenchman

inu to neko
a dog and a cat

Examples of 'ya'
inu ya neko
dogs, cats and other animals

Nippon-jin ya Chūgoku-jin
Japanese, Chinese and others

watashi-tachi ya anata-gata
we, you and the rest

Examples of 'ka'
Igirisu-jin ka Kanada-jin
an Englishman or a Canadian

pen ka enpitsu
a pen or a pencil

kyō ka asu
today or tomorrow

Other Examples
kore to sore to are
this, that and that one there

are ya kore
that, this and others

are ka sore
that one over there or that one

Tanaka Kaoru-san
Mr./Mrs./Miss Kaoru Tanaka

Biru-san to Emirī-san
Bill and Emily

Sumisu-san to Gurīn-san
Mr. Smith and Ms. Greene

Further Study

I. Compare the usages of to and ya

 II. Indicating things.